Libri francez i 1818: Skënderbeu, një luftëtar i madh që bëri mrekullira në një teatër të vogël

December 24, 2017 15:16

Libri francez i 1818: Skënderbeu, një luftëtar i madh që bëri mrekullira në një teatër të vogël

 

Nga Aurenc Bebja*, Francë

Në faqen n°169 të librit me titull “Beautés de l’histoire de Turquie, comprenant les faits les plus remarquables de l’histoire musulmane, depuis Mahomet, les califes, ses successeurs, et les souverains de l’empire ottoman jusqu’à nos jours”, të autorit francez, Jean-René Durdent, gjejmë një përshkrim të veçantë për Gjergj Kastriotin Skënderbeun, të cilin, Aurenc Bebja, nëpërmjet Blogut “Dars (Klos), Mat – Albania”, e sjell atë në shqip:

“Skënderbeu. Rinia e tij.

Nëse një luftëtar e meriton fjalën i MADH, bëhet fjalë për këtë, të paktën në sytë e cilido që nuk gjykon një princ sipas sipërfaqes së territoreve të tij.

Skënderbeu, i kufizuar në një pjesë shumë të vogël territori, u rezistoi gjithmonë forcave të konsiderueshme turke. Ai ishte, me Huniad, armiku i tyre më i frikshëm.

Ai nuk pësoi kurrë humbje ndaj tyre. Vdiq i nderuar, i admiruar; së fundi, meritat për lavdërimet që ka marrë, nuk rrjedhin nga rezultati i dëshirës së tij për pushtim, por i nevojës për t’u mbrojtur, për t’i rezistuar shtypjes, prandaj i mori armët në duar.

…i marrë peng nga Sulltani, ai u dallua shumë shpejt për gjallërinë e shpirtit dhe zhvillmit të parakohshëm. Murati e rriti në sarajin e tij, sipas fesë myslimane, një njeri që do të  bëhej më vonë plaga e Perandorisë osmane.

Madje në oborrin e sulltanit, pas disa akteve guximi, Kastrioti i ri mori nofkën e Skënderbeut, ose Zoti Aleksandër.

Në vend që të shkatërronte botën, ashtu si pushtuesi maqedonas, ai mundi të mbronte vetëm vendin e tij; por bëri mrekulli të vërteta në një teatër kaq të vogël.”

* Burimi: Blogu © Dars (Klos), Mat – Albania

December 24, 2017 15:16
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10 Komente

  1. besniku December 24, 23:56

    Nuk mbrojti vetem vendin e tij te vogel por dhe Europe’s e madhe

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  2. demo December 25, 05:11

    Ka ndonji katunar tjeter qe ka msu frengjisht kohet e fundit andej nga Burreli?Edhe ai TE PATHENA,DHE TE PADEGJUARA do te zbuloje..Keto te PATHENAT E TE PADEGJUARAT e mesiperme i ke ne cdo liber kendimi te klases 2 fillore.Ne 1968 u zhvillua ne Tirane Konferenca e studimeve per Skenderbeun me rastin e 500 vjetorit te vdekjes.U botua i gjithe dokumentacioni arkivor i gjetur deri atehere dhe te gjitha veprat per heroin kombetar.Eshte nje malok nga Dibra qe shet libra te vjeter tek stacioni i trenit.Ik Nari se i ke atje TE PATHENAT NGA SKENDERBEU,.Pastaj dergoja gazetes Dita.Te pakten lexojme ndonje dokument autentik nga Barleti,Muzaka, Falmerajeri,Hopfi,qe jane dore e pare.NUK JANE KATUNARE..

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  3. SCANDERBEG December 25, 19:48

    OLIVER SHCMID

    The uprising in the region between the Adriatic and the slopes of the Polog Mountains created a clear rift between the supporters and opponents of the new imperial order in the Balkans, between town and countryside. The urban centres of the north were under Venetian rule. Not only did they refuse to support Scanderbeg, they opposed him in battle on numerous occasions. Castriota did not succeed in wrenching these groups from Venice, not even by waging war on them. He also failed in the southern regions under the control of the Ottomans. Berat, Vlora and Gjirokastra remained outside of his sphere of influence. The townspeople and the country folk spoke the same language, but this was of no importance. No one behind town walls moved a finger to help the rebels. Indeed, the rebels were defeated and repulsed in Berat. In the east, too, the gates of the mighty towns of Ohrid and Skopje remained shut. The townspeople were looking after their own interests: free trade routes, fields and pastureland that they wanted to keep from the clutches of rebellious nobles and their followers. Scanderbeg led his mountain forces and the herdsmen into the valleys to rob and plunder there. It was the highlands vs. the lowlands, and the mountain people pillaged whatever they could not find in their meagre alpine abode. This was hardly conducive to getting the townspeople to support Scanderbeg. The Ottomans and the Venice held onto their fortresses because they provided the townspeople with protection.

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  4. SCANDERBEG December 25, 19:50

    SCHMED OLIVER

    Scanderbeg was left with the countryside and a few minor castles. But even here, he was unable to win over the population to any substantial extent. The townspeople refused to be ruled by noblemen from up-country; they preferred the orderly administration of the Venetians and the Ottomans, as did many farmers. In the lowlands, Venice and the Ottomans had built up a class of village leaders and spahees, men who would have had much to lose if the nobles from the mountains had taken power: Scutarine patricians and village elders thus fought the rebels as did the privileged Orthodox villages of western Macedonia and southern Albania, and the well-paid Muslim and Orthodox timariots. Even in the highlands, many men refused to support the rebels. The mountains of Dukagjin successfully resisted and held out against Scanderbeg’s attempts to conquer them. This can be explained in good measure by the social, economic and cultural differences between the highlands and the lowlands, but further explanation is needed because Scanderbeg never even received the support of all the highlands or of all the country people.

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  5. SCANDERBEG December 25, 19:55

    OLIVER SCHMITT

    Religion was somewhat more of an element of division, but one must be cautious here, too. There is no doubt that the rebels were Christians, but their exact religious affiliation, whether Orthodox of Catholic, is less clear. Both affiliations were present in Albania, and often in the same regions. Loyalty to Rome came later and reached its zenith after 1460. The allegiance of the rebels to Christianity was a sign of their solidarity to one another and of their opposition to the empire. The uprising was fostered primarily by converts who made their fallout with the sultan known by proclaiming their return to the Christian faith. All the rebels were Christians or renegades who embraced their original faith publicly. There were no Muslims among them. Yet, the uprising did not affect large sections of the Christian population on Albanian territory. The Catholics in Venetian Albania and many Orthodox subjects in the south or in western Macedonia kept their distance. Some Christian officials maintained their loyalty to the sultan. Christian timariots, Christians tasked with guarding mountains passes, and many auxiliary Christian troops took part in quelling the uprising. Of course, the main body of Ottoman forces were Muslims, but there was no religious conformity on the Ottoman side. Scanderbeg’s uprising may be called Christian because it was supported by the Christians, but it was not because it was in itself a general uprising of the Christians. In fact, it is difficult to assess the religious component of the uprising.

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  6. SCANDERBEG December 25, 19:59

    OLIVER SCHMITT

    Religion was somewhat more of an element of division, but one must be cautious here, too. There is no doubt that the rebels were Christians, but their exact religious affiliation, whether Orthodox of Catholic, is less clear. Both affiliations were present in Albania, and often in the same regions. Loyalty to Rome came later and reached its zenith after 1460. The allegiance of the rebels to Christianity was a sign of their solidarity to one another and of their opposition to the empire. The uprising was fostered primarily by converts who made their fallout with the sultan known by proclaiming their return to the Christian faith. All the rebels were Christians or renegades who embraced their original faith publicly. There were no Muslims among them. Yet, the uprising did not affect large sections of the Christian population on Albanian territory. The Catholics in Venetian Albania and many Orthodox subjects in the south or in western Macedonia kept their distance. Some Christian officials maintained their loyalty to the sultan. Christian timariots, Christians tasked with guarding mountains passes, and many auxiliary Christian troops took part in quelling the uprising. Of course, the main body of Ottoman forces were Muslims, but there was no religious conformity on the Ottoman side. Scanderbeg’s uprising may be called Christian because it was supported by the Christians, but it was not because it was in itself a general uprising of the Christians. In fact, it is difficult to assess the religious component of the uprising.

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  7. SCANDERBEG December 25, 20:08

    OLIVER SCHMITT

    However, it was not the Serenissima but the Ottomans who finally defeated Scanderbeg after decades of battle. Castriota was confronted not with the sultan himself, but with his mighty commanders in the Vardar Valley and Thessaly, men who stemmed from Ottoman military dynasties, were extremely wealthy and had substantial military forces at their command. These were talented figures, equal in every respect to Scanderbeg who before 1443 had been his ally in their common endeavours under the sultan. These old veterans of the sultan’s army knew one another well before they extended the war throughout the western Balkans. Scanderbeg drew one advantage from the fact that the sultan’s main forces were engaged for years on end in other conflicts. The task of putting down unrest in the mountains of the west was given to subordinate leaders. Whenever the sultan intervened personally, his mere presence at the head of vastly superior forces was sufficient to put the rebels under enormous pressure. Murad II’s attack on Kruja in 1450 was repulsed, but it brought Scanderbeg to the verge of annihilation. When the sultan finally decided to defeat the rebels by all means, he succeeded in doing so, even though it involved a huge bloodbath, massive destruction and a virtual depopulation of enemy territory.

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  8. Supernova_V_Darkmatter December 25, 20:15

    The Orthodox aristocracy in the Balkans was so closely interrelated by marriage that it can be viewed as one group, united by its Byzantine heritage and Orthodox beliefs. Ethnic origin was of little significance when Greeks, southern Slavs and Albanians allied themselves with one another in marriage. But there was a deep cleft in this elite, too. Most of the old families were divided into pro-Ottoman and anti-Ottoman factions, although this did not mean that relations between the two sides were necessarily severed. As a result of the Ottoman advance, there was little unity among the ruling class in the Balkans. The only assistance they could hope for against the rising Empire was from the Catholic West, but most of the Orthodox princes rejected this out of deeply held religious convictions. In Serbia and Herzegovina where the heretical Bosnian Church still had some influence, many tried to position themselves between the sultan and the Catholic princes of the West, and to play the great powers off against one another. This required considerable diplomatic skill, manoeuvrability and flexibility because pressure was increasing from East and West every year for them to take a clear stance. The Castriotas were not old aristocracy. However, the impulsive Ivan and his famous son George soon achieved renown and this served them well to build up a broad network of marriage alliances with more important Albanian dynasties. Relations had always been close to the Serb princely dynasty of the Brankovići. Blood ties seem to have existed since the time of Scanderbeg’s father. The younger generation of the Castriotas certainly had ties: Scanderbeg’s son Ivan married Irene Branković whose mother was a Byzantine princess of imperial lineage. The two families, i.e. the famous old Brankovići and the young and dynamic Castriotas gave support to one another. The Castriotas gave shelter to the Brankovići when they were on the run and reinforced their mutual ties by marriage. This, however, does not mean that the two families held the same political convictions. George Branković regarded himself as an Orthodox prince and therefore accepted the sultan’s offer to reign as an Ottoman vassal. Scanderbeg, who was originally an Orthodox Christian, too, rejected vassal status and, as opposed to the Serb dynasties, turned to Catholic Europe. He was the sole Orthodox ruler in the Balkans to ally himself consequently with the West. Elsewhere, in Serbia, Byzantium and the Peloponnese, the Catholic Church and the “Latins” were rejected

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  9. SOLAR December 25, 20:18

    PER SHQIPETARET MUSLIMANE QE PELQEJNE GJERGJ KASTRIOTIN (NOT SCENDERBEU)

    These were crusades in which he was an ally. Of all the Western powers, it was the pope who provided the most support to the Christian rebels in Albania. Scanderbeg was one of the most important allies of Calixtus III and Pius II who both initiated attacks on the Ottomans and whose planned attacks were to be focussed on the Albanian coastline. Calixtus III celebrated Scanderbeg as a shining example for Western princes, as a true Athleta Christi.

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  10. THE END December 25, 23:19

    THE END

    Scanderbeg’s life and uprising thus turned into a tragedy for his native land that was devastated and depopulated as no other region of the Balkans before the arrival of the Ottomans. His abandonment in the final days of this life is symbolic. The warrior who was intent on avenging his father, the foe of two sultans, the Athleta Christi, the new Alexander the Great – stood alone in the ruins of his work. The world he knew had vanished. Gone were the popes and rulers who had promised him aid and assistance, his Christian neighbours in the Slavic and Greek-speaking parts of the Balkans, many of his allies in Albania, and in particular his small but loyal group of followers. Posterity ignores his tragedy and looks back on him as a hero who took up the torch in the struggle against the Ottoman Empire. In the minds of Christians in the Balkans, Castriota the Great lives on as a glorious hero. Everyone has forgotten that he was in reality the tragic figure of his age.

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